|Yoga||Fresher:1. 7:45||2. neck||3. mat|
|Asian cooking class||Free recipe after payment extra fee 4. 56？||Bring 5. A knife|
|Make up||7. Lawton||8.mirror|
|9. First aid class||10. 140|
B.B. New, established
D.D. Remove completely
E.11. café----A changed
F.12. garden tools----D
G.13. garden pots----C
H.14. advice area----B
I. 15. exotic plants----A
21. 这个presentation一般针对哪些audience？大约40人的first-year students with a tutor
22. 14th November
23. Presentation的必要内容：background of author, content, summary, question handling, others
24. take care of beginning
25. 做presentation时不用read aloud
26. 学生可以使用software和white board
27. must plan time carefully
28. Other feature: 答辩过程全部会被filmed, 因为对以后的学习非常有用
|29. presentation||skills 20 marks|
What kind of books will the boy choose? 选 A. photojournalism（有关摄影新闻工作的）
31. Two kinds of people lived in the suburb either merchants or wealthy people.
32. Advantages in living in the countryside are low tax and the food prices are also low.
33. Some people live in suburb, because it is easy to start a business.
34. Building large-scale housing can meet the demand of growing population.
35. automobiles(there are more automobiles) 连读
36. lack of space in cities
37. living in the suburb is healthier than in cities
38. less crowded than cities
39. suburb tended to be all the same
40. The architecture style is more like urban construction and people pursue similar goals.
Carbolic Smoke Ball Company
A The Carbolic Smoke Ball Company made a product called the “smoke ball”. It claimed to be a cure for influenza and number of other diseases, in the context of the 1889-1890fhi pandemic(estimated to have killed 1 million people).The bottle was a patented design and the nozzle part was mental one with the gauze inside which filter the air flux. The smoke ball was a rubber ball with a tube attached. It was filled with carbolic acid (or phenol).The tube would be inserted into a user’s nose and squeezed at the bottom to release medicine powder (the vapors) hold inside the rubber ball bottle. The nose would run, ostensibly flushing out viral infections
B The Company published advertisements in the Pall Mall Gazette and other newspapers on November 13,1891,claiming that it would pay~100 to anyone who got sick with influenza after using its product according to the instructions set out in the advertisement.
€100 reward will be paid by the Carbolic Smoke Ball Company to any person who contracts the increasing epidemic influenza colds, or any disease caused by taking cold, after having used the ball three times daily for two weeks, according to the printed directions supplied with each ball.
€1000 is deposited with the Alliance Bank, Regent Street, showing our sincerity in the matter.
During the last epidemic of influenza many thousand carbolic smoke balls were sold as preventives against this disease, and in no ascertained case was the disease contracted y those using the carbolic smoke ball.
One carbolic smoke ball will last a family several months, making it the cheapest remedy in the world at the price,10s, post free. The ball can be refilled at a cost of 5s. Address;” Carbolic Smoke Ball Company.”27,Princes Street, Hanover Square, London.”
C Mrs Louisa Elizabeth Carlill saw the advertisement, bought one of the balls and used it three times daily for nearly two months until she contracted the flu on 17 January 1893.She claimed €100 from the Carbolic Smoke Ball Company. They ignored two letters from her husband, a solicitor. On a third request for her reward, the replied with an anonymous letter that if it is used properly the company had complete confidence in the smoke ball’s efficacy, but” to protect themselves against all fraudulent claims” they would need her to come to their office to use the ball each day and be checked by the secretary. Mrs Carill brought a claim to court. The barristers representing her argued that the advertisement and her reliance on it was a contract between her and the company. and so they ought to pay. The company argued it was not a serious contract.
D The Carbolic Smoke Ball Company, despite being represented by HH Asquith, lost its argument at the Queen’s Bench. It appealed straight away.The Court of Appeal unanimously rejected the company’s arguments and held that there was a fully binding contract for €100 with Mrs Carlill Among the reasons given by the three judges were (1) that the advert was a unilateral offer to all the world (2) that satisfying conditions for using the smoke ball constituted acceptance of the offer (3) that purchasing or merely using the smoke ball constituted good consideration, because it was a distinct detriment incurred at the behest of the company and furthermore,more people buying smoke balls by relying on the advert was a clear benefit to Carbolic (4) that the company’s claim that €1000 was deposited at the Alliance Band showed the serous intention to be legally bound.
E Lord Justice Lindley gave the first judgment,after running through the facts again. He makes short shrift of the insurance and wagering contract arguments that were dealt with in the Queen’s Bench.He believed that the advert was intended to be issued to the public and to be read by the public.How would an ordinary person reading this document construe it ? It was intended unquestionably to have some effect.He followed on with essentially five points First,the advert was not “mere puff” as had been alleged by the company,because the deposit of €1000 in the bank evidenced seriousness.Second,the advertisement was an offer to the world.Third,communication of acceptance is not necessary for a contract when people’s conduct manifests an intention to contract.Fourth,that the vagueness of the advert’s terms was no insurmountable obstacle.And fifth,the nature of Mrs Carlill’s consideration (what she gave in return for the offer) was good,because there is both an advantage in additional sales in reaction to the advertisement and a “distinct inconvenience” that people go to use a smoke ball.
F Lord Justice Bowen LJ’s opinion was more tightly structured in style and is frequently cited.Five main steps in his reasoning can be identified.First,he says that the contract was not too vague to be enforced,because it could be interpreted according to what ordinary people would understand by it.He differed slightly to Lindley LJ on what time period one could contract flu and still have a claim(Lindley LJ said a “reasonable time” after use,while Bowen LJ said “while the smoke ball is used”) but this was not a crucial point,because the fact was the Mrs Carlill got flu while using the smoke ball.Second,like Lindley LJ,Bowen LJ says that the advert was not mere puff because €1000 was deposited in the bank to pay rewards.Third,he said that although there was an offer to the whole world,there was not a contract with the whole world. Therefore,it was not an absurd basis for a contract, because only the people that used it would ind the company.Fourth,he says that communication is not necessary to accept the terms of an offer,conduct is and should be sufficient.fifth,there was clearly good consideration giver by Mrs Carlill because she went to the “inconvenience” of using it,and the company got the benefit of extra sales.
Garlill is frequently cited as a leading case in the common law of contract,particularly where unilateral contracts are concerned.This is perhaps duo to the ingenuity of Counsel for the Defendant in running just about every available defense,requiring the court to deal with these points in turn tin the judgment.It provides an excellent study of the basic principles of contract and how they relate to every day life till modern world. The case remains good law.It still binds the lower courts of England and Wales and is cited by judges with approval.However,in addition to the contractual remedy afforded to users, the same facts would give rise to a number of additional statutory remedies and punishments were an individual to place an advert in the same terms today.
8. Urethane fibre
13 lifesaving role
|Two||社会||Carbolic smoke ball company||判断4，填空4，人名配对4，选择1|
Do the following statement agree with the claims of the winter in reading passage in boxes 14-17 on your answer sheet write
14 influenza epidemic was more rampant in London city than in rural areas. NOT GIVEN
15 a letter has replied to Ms Carill bearing no signed name to claim the company’s innocent. NO
16 the carbolic smoke ball company lost its law suit then the company accepted the sentence straight away. YES
17 the new patented carbolic acid product can be poisonous and viral infectious. NOT GIVEN
Look at the diagram and fill in the blank with no more than one word.
18 the part of gauze
19 a filtering nozzle embedded inside
20 the bottle was made of powder
21 the rubber form medicine inside the bottle
Look at the following statements and the list of people in the box below.
Match each statement with the correct person A-E.
Write the appropriate letter A-E in boxes 22-25 on your answer sheet.
A lord justice Lindley
B lord justice Bowen
C Mrs Carlill
D Mr. Carlill
22 the person who initiated a law suit against the company. C
23 the contract effectiveness can be established because the advert was to be issued to the public including ordinary persons than professionals. A
24 the person who wrote complaints to the company and got no response again. D
25 vagueness of the advert’s terms was no obstacle for people to enforce them. F
Choose the correct answers in boxes 26 on your answer sheet.
26 Why Carlill is frequently cited as a leading case in the common laws of contract.
A it was the first and one of the most famous unilateral contract cases to be concerned,
B it helped companies to develop a number of contractual remedy afforded to users.
C The case remains an excellent example that the basic principles and validity of unilateral contract can be established
D An individual to place an advent in the similar terms today can be free of the punishment
第五段谢了主人公希望通过一个方法来减少飓风对于的人类生活的负面影响比如用围绕地球运行的太阳能发电站，对某一局部加热，改变飓风源头的温度，进而改变飓风随后的轨迹，当然这类方法难度挺大，属于 future technology。
第六段里主人公提出了一些比较 low-tech 的方法来改变飓风的轨迹，如用飞机在飓风的源头做些物理改变等，用比较接地气的方法，也能减少飓风的影响。
Sunny days for silicon
A the sold saw that the devil is in the details characteristic the kind of needling obstacles that prevent an innovative concept from becoming a working technology. It also often describes the type pf problem that must be overcome to shave cost from the resulting product so that people will buy it. Emmauel Sachs of the Massachusetts institute of technology has struggled with many such little devils in his career long endeavor to develop low cost, high-efficiency solar cells. In his latest effort, Sachs has found incremental ways to boost the amount of electricity that common photostatic generate from sunlight without increasing the costs. Specifically, he has raised the conversation efficient of test cells made from crystalline silicon from the typical 15.5 percent to nearly 20 percent- on par with prices single-crystal silicon cells. Such improvements could bring the cost of PV power down from the current $1.90 to $ 2.10 per want to $1.65 per watt. With additional tweaks,, Sachs anticipates creating within four years solar cells that can produce juice at a dollar per watt, a feat that would make electricity from the sun competitive with that from coal-burning power plants.
B most PV cells, such ad those on home rooftops, rely on silicon to convert sunlight into electric current. Metal interconnects then funnel the electricity out from the silicon to power devices or to feed an electrical grid. Since solar cells became practical and affordable three decades ago. Engineers have mostly favored using single-crystal silicon as the active material, says Michael Rogel, managing director of Germany-based Photon Consulting. Wafers of the substance are typically sawed from an ingot consisting of one large crystal that has been pulled like taffy out of a vat of molten silicon. Especially at first, the make PV cells themselves. Rigel recounts. Although single crystal cells offer high conversion deficiencies, they are expensive to make. The alternatives -mulch-crystalline silicon cells, which factories fabricate from lower purity, cast ingots composed of many smaller crystals are cheaper to make, but unfortunately they are less efficient than single crystal cells.
C Sachs, who has pioneered several novel ways to make silicon solar less costly and more effective, recently tumid his focus to the details of multi- crystaline silicon manufacture. The first small improvement concern the little silver fingers that gather electric current from the surface of the bulk silicon. He explains. In conventional fabrication processes, cell manufactures use screen-printing techniques (“like high-accuracy silk- screening of T-shirts,”Sachs notes) and inks containing silver particles to create these bus wires.The trouble is that standard silver wires come out wide and short, about 120 by 10 microns, and include many non conductive voids.As a result, they block considerable sunlight and do not carry as much current as they should.
D At his start-up company--Lexington,Mass,-based 1366 Technologies (the number refers to the flux of sunlight that strikes the earth’s outer atmosphere:1,366 watts per square meter)--Sachs is employing”a proprietary wet process that can produce thinner and taller” wires that are 20 by 20 microns.The slimmer bus wires use less costly silver and can be placed closer together so they can draw more current from the neighboring active material, through which free electrons can travel l so far . At the same time,the wires block less incoming light than their standard counterparts.
E The second innovation alters the wide,flat interconnect wires that collect current frame the silver bus wires and electrically link adjacent cells.Interconnect wires at the top can shade as much as 5 percent of the area of a cell.We place textured mirror surfaces on the faces of these rolled wires.These little mirrors reflect incoming light at a lower angle-around 30 degrees-so that when the reflected rays hit the glass layer at the top,they stay within the silicon wafer by way of total internal reflection.”Sachs explains(Divers and snorkelers commonly see this optical effect when they view water surfaces from below.)The longer that light remains inside,the more chance it has to be absorbed and transformed into electricity.
F Sachs expects that new anti-reflection coatings will further raise multi- crystallline cell efficiency.One of his firm’s future goals will be a switch from expensive silver bus wires to cheaper copper ones.And he has a few ideas regarding how to successfully make the substitution.”Unlike silver,copper poisons the performance of silicon PV ” Sachs says,”so it will be crucial to include a low-cost diffusion barrier that stops direct contact between copper and the silicon”In this business,it’s always the little devilish details that count.
G The cost of silicon solar cells is likely to fall as bulk silicon prices drop,according to the U.S. Energy Information Administration and the industry tracking firm Solar-buzz.A steep rise in solar panel sales in recent years had led to a global shortage of silicon because production capacity for the active material lagged behind, but now new silicon manufacturing plants are coming online.The reduced materials costs and resulting lower system prices will greatly boost demand for solar-electric technology.according to market watcher Michael Rogue of Photon Consulting.
The first chart below shows the value of goods that Australia imported from China and these exported to China from Australia. The second chart shows the types of goods imported from China in 2003 and 2004.
Some people believe that children can learn effectively by watching TV and they should be encouraged to watch TV both at home and school. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
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